real time scenario interview questions

Real-Time Software QA Interview Questions and Answers 

Real-Time Software QA Interview Questions and Answers are essential for aspiring Quality Analysts who want to enter the competitive software industry. Quality Assurance plays a critical role in any software development project, so it is important for job seekers to prepare the right answers to common questions related to this subject. 

Both beginners and experienced software testers can leverage these manual testing real-time scenario interview questions to hone their skills and demonstrate mastery of the subject. By brushing up on topics like writing test cases, defect management systems, and regression testing strategies, preparing for interviews has always been challenging.

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Top 40+ Manual Testing Real-Time Interview Questions & Answers

Top manual testing real-time interview questions and answers

What is the difference between Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC)?    

Quality Assurance (QA) is a proactive process that ensures the quality of software development and testing processes. It focuses on the prevention of errors and problems before they occur.   

Quality Control (QC) is more of a reactive process. It involves testing the product after it has been developed to ensure it meets predefined standards. It is concerned with identifying and eliminating defects

What is the difference between a Test Plan and a Test Strategy?   

Test Plan is a document that outlines what to test, how to test, when to test, and who will test. It details the resources required for successful test execution, such as personnel, environment, and tools.   

Test Strategy is a document that outlines the overall approach to testing, such as what type of tests to use, when to perform them, and how they will contribute to the overall quality of the software product.  

What is the difference between Preventative and Reactive approaches in testing?   

The Preventative approach in testing focuses on preventing errors and problems before they occur. It means that the software will undergo testing for potential issues using techniques such as inspections, reviews, and static tests.  

The Reactive approach in testing involves verifying that the software meets predefined standards after it has been developed. This process includes techniques such as system testing, regression testing, and integration testing.   

Both approaches are important to ensure the quality of a software product.   

Why are you in QA?   

I am passionate about software quality, and I believe that Quality Assurance is essential for successful software development projects.   

Testing is a critical part of the process, and I want to ensure that the software meets all customer requirements, performs as expected, and is ready for release without issues.   

List out the roles of a Quality Assurance engineer.   

A Quality Assurance engineer has many roles, including:   

  • Monitor the entire development process  
  • Designing and executing test plans, test cases, and test scripts.  
  • Investigating system issues and performing root cause analysis.  
  • Providing feedback on software design to ensure that it meets customer requirements.   
  • Prioritize testing activities and develop test cases.  
  • Performing regression testing to verify that changes have not caused unexpected errors or problems.   
  • Monitoring software performance and generating reports on quality metrics.   
  • Investigating customer complaints and performing troubleshooting when needed.   
  • Taking part in testing procedures walkthroughs.  

Explain the process of QA testing.  

QA testing involves verifying that the software meets predefined standards and requirements. The process typically consists of several steps, including:   

  • Requirements analysis – Analyzing customer requirements and developing test plans to meet them.   
  • Test execution – Executing tests on the software according to the test plan and comparing results with expected outcomes.   
  • Defect logging – Logging any defects found during testing.   
  • Defect resolution – Working with developers to resolve issues and verify the fix.   
  • Reporting – Generating reports on test results, defects, and quality metrics.   

What is the role of documentation in QA?   

Documentation is important in QA, ensuring everything is done correctly and defects are logged. Documentation can also explain how the software works, which can help troubleshoot issues or address customer inquiries. Furthermore, it allows for recording what has been tested, providing a useful tool when performing regression testing or providing support. Finally, documentation can ensure that test results are consistent across different environments and platforms.   

How to overcome the challenge of not having input documentation for testing?   

In the absence of input documentation, testers can use existing data to create a sample set, such as gathering real user scenarios and inputting them into the software. Using domain knowledge, you can generate expected output results. Furthermore, exploratory testing is an effective method of quickly finding issues in real-time – making it an ideal solution for when input documents are unavailable.  

What is a quality audit?   

A quality audit is a systematic review of the software development process that assesses its effectiveness and conformity to standards. It typically involves documenting processes, inspecting results, interviewing stakeholders, and evaluating performance metrics. Quality audits can help to identify areas for improvement in the software development life cycle – such as improved testing practices or better management of resources – which can then be addressed to improve the quality of the software product.   

Mention what the test artifacts involved in QA are.   

Test artifacts are documents or materials used to plan, execute and evaluate tests. Common test artifacts include:  

  • Test plans – Outlines the scope of testing and defines roles and responsibilities.   
  • Test cases – Describes the steps needed to test a certain feature or functionality.   
  • Test scripts – Contains detailed instructions for how to carry out tests.   
  • Test data – Includes databases, files, and other information used for testing.   
  • Test logs – Documents the results of tests and any issues encountered during execution.   
  • Defect reports – Describes any bugs or errors identified during testing.   
  • Test metrics – Tracks performance indicators such as test coverage, defect density, and pass/fail rates.   
  • Test summary reports – Summarize test results and provide an overall assessment of the quality of the software product.  

Quality Assurance teams can ensure a successful release by using these artifacts to plan, execute, and track tests. 

What is real-time software QA testing?   

Real-Time Software QA Testing is a form of testing that focuses on real-world scenarios and use cases. Testers must think critically about how users interact with the system, identify potential issues, and validate its real-time performance. This testing is especially important for web and mobile applications, as user behavior can vary significantly from one device to the next.   

How do you ensure quality in real-time testing?   

In real-time testing, it is important to comprehensively understand the system’s functionality and performance in real-world scenarios. Testers must take a holistic approach and pay attention to user experience, scalability, reliability, security, and maintainability. They should also create detailed test plans to compare expected results with actual outcomes. Real-time testing should involve multiple rounds of real-world testing and validation to ensure that the system is reliable, secure, and performs as expected.   

What techniques do you use to ensure that a project meets customer expectations?   

To ensure that a project meets customer expectations, I employ several techniques, including:   

  • Analyzing customer requirements thoroughly to gain an in-depth understanding of their needs.  
  • Conducting reviews and inspections to ensure that all documentation is accurate.   
  • Designing tests to cover all customer requirements and verify the software meets them.  
  • Performing regular testing throughout the development lifecycle to identify any issues early on.   
  • Generating reports on quality metrics so that customers can track progress and get real-time feedback on the project.   
  • Providing timely feedback to stakeholders throughout the process and keeping them informed of any changes or updates.   

Have you written a Test Strategy?   

Test managers or project managers usually prepare test strategy documents. If you’re applying for a Project Manager role, showcasing your experience developing Test Strategy documents can be highly beneficial. But even if you’ve never had the opportunity to write one yourself, just understanding its purpose could make a difference.  

What is a Test Strategy, and what does it include?  

A Test Strategy is a document that outlines the testing process for a particular software development project. It details the type of tests to be conducted, the resources needed, and any limitations or restrictions. Additionally, it includes information about the goals and objectives of the project, as well as metrics and other criteria used to judge success. The document should also include a risk assessment and a plan for dealing with potential issues. Finally, the Test Strategy should include timelines and schedules for tests and strategies for reporting on test results.  

Have you written Test Plan?   

Test Leads and Test Managers are typically responsible for developing detailed test plans. If you have experience creating these documents, you should note this as a strength when applying to similar positions. However, even if your past experiences haven’t yet allowed you to prepare a full document, knowing its purpose is an asset.  

What is a Test Plan, and what does it include?   

A test plan outlines all the testing activities to undertake to deliver a quality product. It includes a list of all the tests to be performed, their objectives and scope, and the resources needed. It also outlines the expected results and success criteria to measure performance. The test plan should also include information about how to organize and structure test cases and what strategies to take for reporting the results of the tests. The document must also anticipate potential risks associated with the project and a plan for dealing with them.  

What is the Process for Creating a Test Script?   

Step 1: To start, obtain extensive knowledge of the UAT by consulting requirement documents. If these are unavailable, gather insight from alternative sources such as older versions of the application or accompanying visuals like wireframes and screenshots.  

Step 2: Identify the test requirements. We break down the application to understand its needs, carefully constructing a checklist on what areas to test. This step is crucial in determining “What” should undergo testing – producing an accurate list of Test Scenarios for further evaluation and analysis.  

Step 3: After constructing the necessary test scenarios, our next step focuses on execution. This important phase requires us to craft precise steps detailing how to test a feature and what pieces of data to input. Additionally, this involves formulating clear expectations regarding anticipated outcomes – all culminating in an organized list of test scenarios.  

What is a Test case template?   

A test case template is a document that contains the details for an individual software test. It includes information about the test’s expected inputs, outputs, and conditions and any pre-conditions or post-conditions that must be met to run successfully. Additionally, it outlines any resources or tools needed for execution and lists the expected test results. Test case templates also provide a space for developers to add any notes or additional information that may be useful in understanding the test and its result. Quality analysts can easily create and track tests using these documents, ensuring that all their projects are tested thoroughly and efficiently.   

What are the key components of a test case template?   

A test case template typically includes the following key components:  

– Name of the test   

– Test Objective   

– Pre-conditions   

– Inputs   

– Expected Outputs   

– Post Conditions   

– Resources/Tools Needed   

– Test Results and any Notes  

By outlining each of these components in a clear, understandable format, quality analysts can quickly and easily create test cases that are both effective and efficient.   

What is the difference between static and dynamic testing?   

Static testing is the process of analyzing software or application without executing them. It involves examining the code to identify bugs and other issues, such as coding errors and improper logic.   

On the other hand, dynamic testing involves running the software in real-time to detect any problems that may arise during execution. This type of testing is used to evaluate the functionality and performance of a system or application.  

How do you decide when you have tested enough?   

The answer to this question depends heavily on the project and its goals. Quality analysts should use their experience, knowledge, and industry best practices to determine when enough testing has been done. Additionally, they should review the test plan to ensure that all specified tests are complete. Once all of these criteria have been met conclusively, the project has been successfully tested.  

What are the key components of a bug report?   

A bug report, also known as a defect report, is a document that outlines the details of any defects or issues that have been found during testing. The components of a bug report are Defect Id, the title of the defect, Reporter Name, Defect Report Date, the Description of the defect, Severity, Priority, Environment where the bug is present, Steps to reproduce the Defect, expected results, and actual results.  

What key points to consider while writing a bug report?  

  • Reproduce the bug 2-3 times.   
  • Clearly describe the issue in detail.  
  • Provide information about the environment where there are bugs 
  • Highlight the steps required to reproduce the bug.   
  • Include screenshots or videos, if available.  
  • Mark bugs with a priority level as critical or high.   
  • Update the bug report when there is a change in the defect status.   
  • Attach the logs to check for errors.   
  • Add comments for any additional information about the bug or the testing process.  
  • Proofread your bug report before posting it.  

What are the advantage and disadvantages of Automated Testing?   


  • Save time and money since running tests with minimal human intervention is quick.  
  • Reliable and repeatable, ensuring that the same test is always performed in the same way each time.   
  • Mostly used for regression tests  
  • It can cover a wider range of scenarios faster than manual tests.  


  • High-cost initial setup  
  • Require significant resources to implement and maintain.   
  • May not be able to detect all bugs, particularly those related to the user experience.  
  • Cannot always identify errors that a real person can only spot.   

What is the difference between build and release?   

A build is a version of the code that has been compiled and tested. It includes various features, bug fixes, and other changes to the source code.   

A release is a specific version of the application ready for distribution or deployment to users.   

What are bug leakage and bug release?   

Bug leakage is the failure to detect and fix software bugs during the QA process, resulting in them being released into production.   

Bug release is the process of releasing a version of an application or system with known defects. It can be done intentionally as part of a risk management strategy or unintentionally due to negligence or lack of resources.   

What is Bug triage?   

Bug triage is the process of determining which bugs need fixing first. It involves reviewing bug reports, assigning priority levels, and deciding on a course of action for each bug.  

Explain the bug life cycle.   

The bug life cycle is the process of tracking and managing reported bugs. This step can occur over multiple iterations until the team achieves the desired outcome. The bug life cycle helps ensure that no issues are overlooked or forgotten and that all bugs are dealt with in an organized and efficient manner.   

What are MR and ER?   

MR stands for Master Requirement and is used to define a specific requirement that needs to be met by the project.   

ER stands for Enhancement Request and is used to request additional features or improvements that may not be essential to the project but can make it more user-friendly or powerful.  

What are some of the types of software testing?   

There are different types of software testing, such as unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing, user acceptance testing (UAT), regression testing, and performance testing.   

What is CRUD testing?   

CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update, and Delete. CRUD testing is used to verify that the application can perform all four of these basic operations on data in a database. This testing helps ensure the application can store and retrieve data accurately and securely.   

What is Cookie testing?   

Cookie testing ensures the application can store and retrieve data in cookies correctly. This testing helps ensure that the application can save, access, and delete user preferences, login information, and other data stored in cookies.   

What is Data validation?   

Data validation ensures that all the information entered into an application is accurate and valid. Data validation helps ensure that the application’s data is reliable and consistent.   

What is SRS?   

SRS stands for System Requirement Specifications. This document outlines the requirements that a software application or system needs to meet before development. Additionally, it includes an overview of the system, features, user stories, use cases, and other relevant information.   

What are the different sections present in SRS? 

  • Overview  
  • Scope  
  • Features  
  • User characteristics  
  • Software requirements  
  • Hardware requirements  
  • Performance requirements  
  • Use cases  
  • Security and reliability requirements  

How long do you spend understanding SRS?   

The time spent understanding SRS varies depending on the complexity of the project. Generally, it can take a few hours to a few days to fully understand the SRS document.   

What will be the problem without SRS?   

Without SRS, developers may not understand the expectations for the project, leading to delays and missed deadlines. Additionally, with a clear set of objectives to meet, there is a greater risk of creating an application or system that meets user needs. It can result in costly rework and dissatisfaction from users.   

What is the difference between Compatibility testing and Cross browser testing?   

Compatibility testing is the process of ensuring that an application works well on different hardware and operating systems.   

Cross-browser testing, on the other hand, is the process of ensuring that a website or application works correctly on different web browsers. It helps ensure that users can access and use the website from any device and browser, regardless of which one they use.   

What is Configuration management?   

Configuration management is versioning and tracking changes to software components, configurations, databases, infrastructure, and other related resources.  

What are the various tools you have used in the testing process?   

My testing process was conducted using the following tools:  

  • Test Management Tools: JIRA, TestLodge, Quality Center, AccelaTest  
  • Test Case Management Tools: TestCaseLab  
  • Defect Tracking Tools: Bugzilla, MantisBT  
  • Automation Tools: QTP/UFT, Selenium, LoadRunner  
  • GUI Tools: Froglogic Squish  
  • Cross Browser Testing Tools: CrossBrowserTesting, BrowserStack  

What is Testware?   

Testware is the software testers use to test a product or system. This includes tools, scripts, and documentation used in the testing process.   

43. Explain the review process you follow in your organization?   

Our review process typically follows the following steps:  

1. Documentation of the test plan and test scripts  

2. Peer review of the documents  

3. Review by a QA lead  

4. Once approved, the test scripts are ready to be executed  

5. A QA lead reviews results, and any defects are identified and tracked  

6. The test scripts are then re-evaluated after the defects have been fixed  

7. Once all defect fixes have been tested and verified, the product is ready to be released.   

What are the roles present in the review?   

The roles present in the review process are typically:  

  • Moderator – leads the review, planning, and running of the meeting.  
  • Authors – understanding the deficiencies found and illuminating the unclear areas  
  • Reviewers – also known as checkers or inspectors; ensure any material is defect-free, mostly before the meeting.  
  • Scribe – A separate person responsible for logging defects found during the review.  
  • Managers – decide the executions of reviews, calculate project schedules and determine whether review objectives are met. 

How to test customer-facing software?   

Customer-facing software requires extensive testing to ensure that it meets customer requirements and is intuitive for the user. It is important to define the software’s goal, whether it’s an eCommerce platform, a help desk application, or something else. Following this, testers must develop test cases based on real-world scenarios. It includes understanding user flow, testing for functionality, performance, and scalability, verifying proper data handling and security protocols are in place, as well as evaluating usability and accessibility. Additionally, real-time monitoring is essential to detect errors or bugs as soon as they occur. Finally, testers must review user feedback to ensure the software meets customer needs.        

How to get maximum productivity from an offshore team?    

Setting clear expectations is the key to maximum productivity from an offshore team. Therefore, it is essential to establish measurable goals, provide detailed instructions on achieving them, and stay in touch with the team, allowing you to get real-time feedback and resolve any issues immediately.    

What are the Roles and Responsibilities of an onsite coordinator? Does he/she test too?   

An onsite coordinator is primarily responsible for managing the team and providing real-time guidance. Managing the team includes monitoring the project’s progress, overseeing day-to-day operations, and potential troubleshooting issues. Additionally, they need to know trends in software testing techniques and act as a liaison between the team and other stakeholders. While an onsite coordinator may be involved in testing, their primary role is to provide guidance and supervision of the offshore team.   

Mobile Application Testing – What does it include briefly?   

Ensuring the compatibility and usability of your app is a key component in delivering a top-notch user experience. To do this, you must ensure it works well on Android and iOS platforms across various carriers and devices. Testing should include functions such as installation, uninstallation, and launching under different network conditions – 2G, WiFI, etc., along with debugging logs to keep track of errors or performance issues that may occur throughout usage.  

Final Thoughts  

Getting ready for interview

Real-time software QA interviews may be intimidating, but having the right answers to real-world scenarios can make all the difference. Understanding customer requirements and having a clear testing strategy is essential, as well as being aware of key roles in the process and their responsibilities. By demonstrating your knowledge of real-time software QA interview questions and understanding real-world scenarios, you’ll be well on landing a quality assurance role.